In thinking through how to classify technology enabled behavior modification programs, found this to be helpful.

Health-oriented behavior-change programs can be divided into five categories based on their relationship to clinical settings. The participant and clinician expectations are different for each approach.

1 Direct to consumer: No relationship to clinical setting.

2 Clinically referred: Clinician/system suggests a patient tries a particular solution (e.g., why don’t you try a commercial weight loss program?).

3 Clinically sponsored: Clinical setting has decided on particular solution(s) and offers it to the patient (for free or for a charge) (e.g., linked directly from clinical website to clinic-branded site with direct-to-consumer application/program, e.g., dLife, WebMD).

4 Clinically linked: Clinical site refers patient to specifically approved approach, provides information to the program and receives feedback about the patient’s performance. Clinician is expected to encourage participation, identify barriers, support patient’s choices, etc.

5 Clinically integrated: Clinical site provides branded experience in which clinic-based clinicians are part of the approach (e.g., there is a group-based experience run by the clinic staff and an Internet-based experience in which a clinician coaches the patient).

Neal Kaufman. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. February 2013, 15(S1): S-60-S-74.

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